To simplify a complex process, people are supposed to sign up for Medicare Part B when they turn 65, unless they are working and have coverage through an employer, or a working spouse’s employer. There is an Initial Enrollment Period to apply for Part B, which covers much of what we consider health care: doctor visits, tests, injectable drugs (including chemotherapy), ambulances, physical therapy and other non-hospital services.
NYT’s Paula Span gives us the heads up in her article in the NYT’s New Old Age section: Don’t Wait to Sign Up for Medicare Part B. Waiting and missing the deadline can result in permanently higher premiums when you do choose to sign up (10% per year). She has much more at the link, including how to sign up for the plan.